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different types of cement

Coloured Cement

Coloured cement is obtained by mixing ordinary portland cement with 5 – 10% mineral pigments. The pigments impart colours to the cement.

Uses

This types of cement is widely used for decorative works in floors and ceiling. Coloured cement is commonly used in grouting of tiles. The cement is selected such that the colour of the grout and colour of tiles match perfectly for finishing the flooring.

Low Heat Cement

Low heat cement is obtained by reducing the content of CA and increasing the content of CA. The name itself indicates this types of cement will release low heat of hydration. Low heat cement has more initial setting time as compared to OPC.

Uses:

It is used in massive concrete construction like large footings, large raft slabs, gravity dams, thick pavements etc. Low heat cement is also used in the construction of hydraulic structures and retaining walls.

White Cement

White cement is obtained by using raw materials which are free from iron oxide in the manufacturing of cement. Lime and china clay are used in more amounts in its manufacturing. White cement has all other properties similar to an ordinary Portland cement. It is expensive as compared to OPC.

Uses:

White cement is used for architectural purposes such as pre-cast curtain wall and facing panels etc. It is also used in making wall putty, tile grout, tile adhesive, etc. White cement is also used for external rendering as it provides a smooth and pleasing finish. It is also preferred for terrazzo flooring works.

Hydrophobic Cement

Hydrophobic cement is made by adding admixtures such as naphthalene soap, acidol, oxidised petroleum, etc. in the ordinary Portland cement. A water-repellent layer around the cement particles is formed, which would facilitate its storage for longer periods in extremely wet climatic conditions

Uses:

Hydrophobic cement is used in the construction of dams, spillways, underwater constructions. It can also be used in cold and rainy weather conditions.

Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)

Ordinary Portland cement is the most common type of cement which is manufactured and widely used worldwide. It is used for all ordinary purposes such as making concrete, mortar, plaster etc. OPC is available in three different grades namely grade 33, 43 and 53.

Uses

Ordinary Portland cement is mixed with aggregates, and water to make concrete, which is an essential modern building material. It is also used to make mortar for joining masonry and plaster to give perfectly finished walls. OPC has many applications such as in the manufacturing of grout, wall putty, solid concrete blocks, AAC blocks, and other types of cement.

2- Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC)

Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) is a variation of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), which includes a mixture of pozzolanic materials, OPC and gypsum. The different pozzolanic materials used are fly ash, rice husk ash, volcanic tuffs, etc. Fly ash is most commonly used pozzolanic material. The heat of hydration rate is lower in this type of cement. There are many advantages of PPC over PPC, which has made it prominent in the construction industry. Nowadays, some manufacturers are only manufacturing PPC. Portland pozzolana cement is prepared by grinding pozzolanic clinker with Portland cement. It is also produced by adding pozzolana with the addition of gypsum or calcium sulfate or by intimately and uniformly blending portland cement and fine pozzolana.

Main uses

This cement has high resistance to various chemical attacks on concrete compared with ordinary portland cement and thus it is widely used. It is used in marine structures, sewage works, sewage works and for laying concrete under water such as bridges, piers, dams and mass concrete works as a replacement of OPC. Apart from common applications, it is used in mass concrete constructions like high-rise buildings.

Rapid Hardening Cement

Rapid hardening cement attains high strength in early days as compared to OPC. It has other properties quite similar to that of Ordinary Portland cement, but it is a bit finer than OPC. It has more lime and C3S than OPC which helps in gaining strength early.

Uses:

Rapid hardening cement is used when there is a need to remove formwork at an early stage for saving the cost of construction. It is also used in prefabricated concrete construction.

Extra Rapid Hardening Cement

Extra rapid hardening cement is obtained by addition of calcium chloride to rapid hardening cement. Calcium chloride added helps in accelerating the hardening and setting processes. The compressive strength of Extra Rapid Hardening cement is about 25% higher than that of Rapid Hardening Cement at one or two days.

Uses:

Extra rapid hardening cement is used in cold weather concreting, to set the cement fast. It is also used in situations when formwork is to be removed early.

Quick Setting Cement

Quick setting cement sets faster as compared to OPC, but the rate of gain of strength remains the same. In these types of cement, the quantity of gypsum, which acts as a retarder is reduced. It has an initial setting time of 5 minutes and a final setting time of 30 minutes.

Uses:

This types of cement is used where a quick setting is needed in a very short period like underwater structures, cold and rainy weather conditions etc. Quick setting cement is also used in structural repairs where the setting is an important criterion.

Quick Setting Cement

Quick setting cement sets faster as compared to OPC, but the rate of gain of strength remains the same. In these types of cement, the quantity of gypsum, which acts as a retarder is reduced. It has an initial setting time of 5 minutes and a final setting time of 30 minutes.

Uses:

This types of cement is used where a quick setting is needed in a very short period like underwater structures, cold and rainy weather conditions etc. Quick setting cement is also used in structural repairs where the setting is an important criterion.

Sulphate Resisting Cement

Sulphate resisting cement is beneficial in the area where the concrete is vulnerable to sulphates attack. This types of cement have less contents of CS and AF.

Uses:

Sulphate resisting cement is used where concrete has exposure to sea coast or soil or saline groundwater.

Masonry Cement

This type of cement is obtained by added plasticising materials such as limestone, hydrated lime, etc. in the clinker during manufacturing of OPC. It remains in the plastic state for a longer time so that the masonry units can be placed properly.

Uses:

The masonry cement is often used in brick, concrete block and stone masonry construction; also used to produce plaster.

Air Entraining Cement

Various air entraining agents such as resins, glues, sodium sulphate, etc. are added along with the clinker to produce air entraining cement. For the same water-cement ratio, air entraining cement has more workability as compared to OPC. This types of cement has more resistance to frost. But as it contains voids, it has less durability.

Uses:

Air entraining cement is used to fill up the gaps in concrete which are produced by the excessive amount of water during the casting of concrete members. It also used in cold weather when frost resistance in concrete is an important criterion.

High Alumina Cement

High alumina cement is obtained by melting bauxite during the manufacturing process of OPC. It has a high compressive strength and is more workable as compared to OPC. It attains high strength in less time and has initial and final setting time of 3.5 hours and 5 hours respectively.

Uses:

This type of cement is used where concrete structures are subjected to high temperatures like workshop, refractory, foundries etc. Also, it can be used where concrete is subjected to frost action and acidic action.

Sulphate Resisting Cement

Sulphate resisting cement is beneficial in the area where the concrete is vulnerable to sulphates attack. This types of cement have less contents of CS and CAF.

Uses:

Sulphate resisting cement is used where concrete has exposure to sea coast or soil or saline groundwater.

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Crazy accident fails compilation

These Accident fail videos all have one thing in common: complete morons hurting themselves. Whether it’s the bartender at the bar who thinks adding fire to his mixology repertoire is a good idea, or the kid trying to do a backflip off of his skateboard, it’s hard to imagine what the people in these funny gifs could have possibly been thinking. Even though these images don’t have sound, you can almost hear the impact in your head and imagine the next morning’s medical bills. Some of these epic fails can be predicted from the first image, when others go wrong in a completely different way than you would have ever expected.

Either way, you won’t know whether to laugh or cringe. @peoplefails

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